Wars spill over into emigre communities. With IS, the self-proclaimed Islamic Caliphate in the former Iraq, attacking the Kurdistan Region (the former Kurdish autonomous region in erstwhile northern Iraq it is perhaps unsurprising that partisans of the two groups have clashed in parts of Europe where there are both ardent Salafi Islamists, and Kurdish migrants.
Sheffield saw a minor skirmish, in which Kurds wrested the black-and-white flag of IS from the hands of immigrant Salafists of Pakistani origin.
Larger scale street fights have happened in several German cities. Germany is home to an estimated 700,000 Kurds (mostly from eastern Turkey) and their descendants, as well as to unknown numbers of sympathizers and supporters of Salafi Islamism, facts that make the street-fighting that broke out recently in Herford, North Rhine-Westphalia seem almost inevitable.